The survey and cartography of this Portuguese-Spanish Raia [border] was first designed under the auspices of King D. Manuel II, following the work of Duarte D`Armas between 1509 and 1510, the famous Livro le Fortalezas who drew the plants and views of the Portuguese fortification. From the mouth of the Minho River in the north to the mouth of the Guadiana River in the south, part of the current Portuguese-Spanish border extends from the former county of Portugal. From the Treaty of Zamora (1143), which marks the birth of Portugal, to the episode of the “Reconquista”, which culminated in the Treaty of Badajoz (1267) attributed to the Algarve in Portugal, and the Treaty of Alcanizes (1297), a demarcation line that has rarely been revised for more than 700 years has been established. Border facts: Spain has a total land border of 1928 km, divided by five countries: Morocco, Andorra, France, Portugal and Gibraltar. The country also borders the Mediterranean, the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal borders the country to the west, Gibraltar to the south, France and Andorra to the northeast, while Morocco adjoins spain`s autonomous cities of Melilla and Ceuta and other small rural and island areas. In addition, the country has an enclave called Llivia, located in France. My report on Llivia is here. This is the external border of the EU, as Andorra is not part of the EU or Schengen and, therefore, comprehensive passport and customs controls are carried out. The most important crossing point is La Seu d`Urgell – Sant Julia de Loria, my report here.
There are other roads that cross the border with Spain – one to the enclave of Pene Os de Civís (my report here) and the other via Port de Cabús (although this is a demanding rural route on the Spanish side of the border, which is only open between June and October, details here). There is currently no rail link, although one is planned, details here. The Double Ravelin is Vauban`s most elaborate advanced work (with a ravelin and a demilune and trenches connected to each other by a drawbridge, with the poster bulging with a turning plant). The Ravelin de Paiol has two buildings (magazine and chapel), with access ramp to the moat….